The XV edition of the ALAGO Congress will count on talks, keynotes and selected papers, addressing the following topics:
We are working on the program to provide high level technical-scientific discussions focusing on
Organic Geochemistry, bringing news as Medical Geology. Check back for additional information and
Presentations, oral or poster, should fit into the following scientific sessions:
1. Petroleum System
2. Unconventional Petroleum Systems
3. Basin Modelling
4. Gas Geochemistry
5. Source Rock Characterization
6. Environmental Geochemistry
7. Organic in medical Geology
8. New Analytical Techniques
9. Surface Exploration Technologies
|Schedule||Sat 3th||Sun 4th||Mon 5th||Tuey 6th||Wed 7th||Thu 8th|
|Petroleum Systems and Basin Modeling||Analytical Techniques||Source Rock Characterization and Paleoenvironmental Assessment|
|08:30 - 09:10||
|KEYNOTE: Hydrocarbon Biomarker Research In The Era Of Genomics
Roger Summons (MIT, USA)
|KEYNOTE: Compound specific sulfur isotope analysis and applications to petroleum geochemistry
Geoffrey Ellis (USGS, USA)
|KEYNOTE: New Techniques And Applications Of Organic Petrography In The North American Shale
Paul Hackley (USGS, USA)
RECÔNCAVO BASIN, BAHIA BRAZIL
|09:10 - 09:30||Hydrothermal Petroleums And Solid Reservoir Bitumens: Recognition Of An Atypical Petroleum
System In The Brazilian Pre-Salt Deposits (Santos Basin)
Jarbas Guzzo (Petrobras, Brazil)
|First analysis of polar compounds trapped in fluid inclusions using ultra high resolution mass spectrometry –
A proof of concept demonstrated on a case study from the Pannonian Basin (Hungary)
Mareike Noah (GFZ, Germany)
|Lower Paleozoic Source Rocks in the Baltic Basin (NE Poland
Pawel Kosakowski (AGH, Poland)
|09:30 - 09:50||The Significance of Large Diamondoids for Correlation of Oils and Source Rocks
Michael Moldowan (Biomarker Technologies, USA)
|FTICR-MS – More Than Just Mass Spectrometry? Towards Reaction Systems Models in Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry
Thomas Oldenburg (Univ. of Calgary, Canada)
|Evaluation of the Effects on the Distribution of Basic Nitrogen-Containing Compounds in the Simulated Thermal Evolution
of a Type-I Source Rock
Taynara Covas (UFG, Brazil)
|09:50 - 10:10||Deconvolution of Petroleum Sources in Southern Offshore Brazilian Basins Using Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios
(d13C) of n-Alkanes and Biomarker Data
Clarisse Torres (UFRJ, Brazil)
|Evaluation of Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry to Geochemical Characterization of Crude Oil Samples
Boniek Vaz (UFG, Brazil)
|Depositional Environments and Maturity Evaluated by Biomarker Analyzes in Sedimentary Rocks of the Pimenteiras
Formation - Parnaíba Basin
Alek de Sousa (UFPI, Brazil)
|10:10 - 10:30||COFFEE BREAK|
|10:30 - 10:50||Physical Simulations of Petroleum Changes Related to Interaction with CO2 - Comparison of Different Mixture Scenarios
Joelma Lopes (Petrobras, Brazil)
|The Era of Mass Surveillance: Identify Suspects , Confirm Targets and Explore Unknowns with GCMS Q-TOF
Celso Blatt (Agilent Technologies, Brazil)
|Molecular Biomarkers as Source Indicators of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Record of Southeast Brazilian Continental Shelf
Felipe Santos (USP, Brazil)
|10:50 - 11:10||The Revolution in Geochemistry and Basin Modelling
Jeremy Dahl (Stanford University, USA)
|Quantification of Naphtenic Acids (NAs) in Petroleum Field Naphtenate Deposits Samples by Infrared Spectroscopy
Adriana de Souza (UFRJ, Brazil)
|Determination of organic degradation rates in 100 My old sediments from Demerara Rise ODP Leg 207
Azdine Ravin (IFPEN, France)
|11:10 - 11:30||Genetic Comparison of Crude Oils from West Africa and South American Conjugate Basins
Craig Schiefelbein (Geochemical Solutions International, USA)
|The Power of Chromatography for Isotope Ratio MS
Dieter Juchelka (ThermoFisher Scientific, Germany)
|Evaluation of Aromatic Biomarkers as Indicators of Thermal Evolution in Pimenteiras Formation Outcrop Samples
(Devonian, Parnaíba Basin)
Iasmine Souza (UFBA, Brazil)
|11:10 - 11:30||LUNCH|
|Reservoir Geochemistry and Biodegradation||Environmental Geochemistry I||Unconventionals and Source Rock Characterization||
RECÔNCAVO BASIN, BAHIA BRAZIL
|13:00 - 13:40||KEYNOTE: Reservoir Geochemistry - Fluids Don´t Lie and the Devil is in the Detail
Johannes Weijers (Shell, The Netherlands)
|KEYNOTE: Enhanced Dispersion and Bioremediation for Oil Spill Countermeasures
Bing Chen (Memorial University, Canada)
|KEYNOTE: Introduction of Petroleum System Modeling of Unconventional Resources
Kenneth Peters (Schlumberger, USA)
|13:40 - 14:00||Reservoir Characterization and Production Allocation Through Oil Geochemistry in Grimbeek Field, Golfo San Jorge Basin, Argentina
Martín Eugenio Fasola (YPF, Argentina)
|Environmental Forensics: Past, Present and Future
Paul Philp (University of Oklahoma, Brazil)
|Determination of Producing Horizons in Unconventional Wells
Jeremy Dahl (Stanford University, USA)
|14:00 - 14:20||Effects of Waterflooding and Meor on the Chemical Properties of Brazilian Crude Oil
Luciana Sodré (UENF, Brazil)
|Remediation of Petroleum Spilled in the Marine Environment from Pre-Treated Natural Fiber
Célia Cardoso (UFBA, Brazil)
|Integrated Geochemical and Petrophysical Analytical Workflow to Characterize Source-Reservoir Rocks:
Application to the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquén Basin, Argentina
Maria Romero-Sarmiento (IFPEN, France)
|14:20 - 14:40||Molecular Assessment of Geochemical Indicators for Biodegradation in Crude Oils from Espírito Santo Basin, Brazil
Bruno Araújo (UFRJ, Brazil)
|Phytorremediation in the Treatment of Petroleum on Contaminated Mangrove Sediments
Naiara dos Santos (UFBA, Brazil)
|Influence of the Depositional Environment on the Saturated Biomarker Maturity Parameters
Igor Viegas (Petrobras, Brazil)
|14:40 - 15:00||Geochemistry of Asphaltenes: the Relative Abundance of A1 and A2 Subfractions in Crude Oils from the Maracaibo Basins
Miguel Orea (UCV, Venezuela)
|Long-Term Alterations in Organic Matter Composition and Microbial Community in an Oilimpacted Mangrove
Daiane de Oliveira (UFBA, Brazil)
|HF-NMR Meets Geochemical Screening: an Integrated Approach to Examine Producibility in Organic-Rich Source and Reservoir Rocks
Humberto Carvajal (Core Laboratories, USA)
|15:00 - 15:20||COFFE BREAK|
|15:20 - 16:00||POSTER SESSION||The Future of Unconventionals in Brazil|
|--||Gas Geochemistry||Environmental Geochemistry II and Organics in Medical Geology|
|16:00 - 16:40||KEYNOTE: Isotopic Evidence of Natural Gas at Equilibrium in Petroleum Fields and Implications for Natural Gas Formation
Nithya Thiagarajan (Caltech, USA)
|KEYNOTE: Human Health Impacts of Organic Substances in the Environment: an Underappreciated Aspect of Medical Geology
William Orem (USGS, USA)
|16:40 - 17:00||Formation Processes of Light Hydrocarbons and Other Short-Chain Organic Compounds in the Mud Volcanoes of the Marianna Trench
Olivier Sissman (IFPEN, France)
|Assessment of Fatty Acids and Cholesterol in Kidney Stones
Aluana Schleder (UFPR, Brazil)
|17:00 - 17:20||Experimental Study of H2S solubility in Brine/n-Decane Mixtures under HPHT Conditions
Javier Salazar (UCV, Venezuela)
|Seasonal Dispersion of HTPs in the Estuary of the São Paulo River, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil Due to the Formation of Oil Aggregate Particulate Material
Samires Pinheiro (UFBA, Brazil)
|17:20 - 17:40||Origin of H2S In Presalt Reservoirs: Quo Vadis?
Eugenio Santos Neto (Independent Consultant, Brazil)
|Sterol Biomarkers in Superficial Sediments Collected from a Tropical Estuarine
System (Sergipe-Poxim), Northeast Brazil: Seasonal Distribution and Sources
Michel Souza (UFS, Brazil)
|17:40 - 18:00||Elemental Noble Gases Fractionation Due to Different Fluids Interaction: a Case Study of a Brazilian Oilfield
Erica Tavares (Petrobras, Brazil)
|Impacts of Local Vegetation Changes in the Organic Matter Input to a Preserved Tropical Estuary (Itapicuru River Estuary, Bahia, Brazil)
Ana Cecilia Barbosa (UFBA, Brazil)
Roger Summons (MIT, USA)
Biomarker geochemistry is based on the principle that molecules preserved in the geological
record (molecular fossils) carry specific kinds of taxonomic, metabolic and/or environmental
information. Natural products chemistry was the initially available source of knowledge concerning
origin of particularly common carbon skeletons such as steroids, carotenoids and porphyrins. When
the limitations of this approach became obvious, empirical methods were increasingly used to link
specific taxa with the compounds they produce but were hampered by the fact that only a small proportion
of living organisms, and especially microorganisms, could be brought into culture for lipid biosynthesis
More recently, the rapidly expanding database of microbial genomes has enabled a much more focused new approach that can test phylogenetic patterns and hypotheses about the organismic origins of particular biomarkers. Genes that encode proteins fundamental to the biosynthesis of particular lipids can now be searched for (BLASTED) across all known genomes. Candidate organisms can then be checked for expression of these proteins under different culture conditions providing further finesse to understanding the meaning of biomarker lipids in the fossil record. Systematic and comparative studies of genomes across related and unrelated organisms can be used to target genes critical to the biosynthesis of compounds for which the lipid biosynthesis pathways are unknown or poorly known. Lastly, I will examine how the use of this new knowledge and a molecular clock approach can constrain the origination times of particular biomarker lipids.
Johan Weijers (Shell, Netherlands)
Production geochemistry is an integrated part of Shell business in the operating units.
Detailed geochemical analyses of both the gas and liquid phases are routinely used to aid
our understanding of Reservoir Connectivity, as part of Well, Reservoir and Facility management
(WRFM) and to provide crucial base line data for Decommissioning.
The collection of geochemical data starts at the front end of the life cycle of a field including the use of isotubes. These are low volume atmospheric gas samples collected from the mud gas stream during drilling operations. Both the molecular and isotope composition of the gas is analysed to assess hydrocarbon source, maturity as well as within well connectivity. These are now routinely collected in all exploration and appraisal wells and in many production wells. Critical in this respect is the collection of isotubes in as much of the overburden as possible, as these data may become critical during late life production and end of field life. The importance of these data will be shown in a number of case studies from Central North Sea fields.
Standard reservoir characterisation also includes detailed geochemical fingerprinting to assess reservoir connectivity. Were possible both gas and liquid are evaluated as they often yield complementary data rather than similar data. Examples are shown where the geochemistry shows clear fluid discontinuities in fields as well as evidence of within field mixing.
Finally, Shell geochemical fingerprints of liquids using Multi-Dimensional Gas Chromatography (MDGC) are regularly used to allocate between different input streams (i.e. commingled production zones, wells or fields). An example of a multi-well single pipeline production allocation will be discussed revealing an improved understanding of pipeline residence time and a more accurate determination of the contributions of the different wells.
Nivedita Thiagarajan (CALTECH, USA)
Understanding the mechanisms of natural gas formation is critical for predicting
where it forms in economically useful amounts and for recognizing where it is released
to the environment. Hydrocarbons in natural gas are believed to come from two sources,
one from biological processes (‘biogenic gas’) and the other from catagensis, or thermal
cracking of kerogen and oil (‘thermogenic gas’). There is general agreement that biogenic
gas is microbial in origin, is overwhelmingly dominated by methane, and its production is
often accompanied by destruction of higher order hydrocarbons. But there is disagreement over
the origin and chemistry of thermogenic gas. The predominant view is that it is created by
irreversible, thermally activated breakdown of various hydrocarbons with the reactions dominated
by the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds or ‘cracking’. However, laboratory experiments involving
heating of hydrocarbon solids and liquids generally produce hydrocarbon gases that differ in molecular
composition from natural gases. Natural gas reservoirs tend to have 80-85% methane, while pyrolysis
experiments only produce 10-65% methane. Additionally, solid and liquid hydrocarbons exist in geologic
environments at temperatures much greater than would be expected based on experimentally calibrated models
An alternative hypothesis holds that thermogenic gases are created by a family of reactions that both break and form carbon-carbon bonds, driving the molecular proportions of product gases to ‘metathetic equilibrium’ — a metastable equilibrium state arising from networks of individually irreversible but interconnected reactions. Support for the metathetic equilibrium hypothesis comes from laboratory experiments that mix precursor liquid hydrocarbons with rock and metal catalysts, which upon heating produce gases with molecular and isotopic compositions more closely resembling natural gases.
Here, we have measured and compiled C and H isotopic compositions of CO2, methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3), butane (C4) and/or pentane (C5) for 119 gases from 20 conventional, unconventional, oil-associated and oil-nonassociated natural deposits around the world. We show that inter- and intra-molecular isotopic distributions among the small alkanes (C1-C5) in natural gases provide compelling evidence that a significant fraction of such gases approach thermodynamic equilibrium, either at the conditions of gas formation or the conditions of reservoir storage. This finding implies that metathetic equilibrium controls the chemistry of many natural gases and that new approaches should be taken to predicting the compositions of natural gases as functions of time, temperature and source substrate. This conclusion also implies that an isotopically equilibrated state can serve as a reference frame for recognizing many secondary processes that may modify natural gases after their formation, such as biodegradation.
Geoffrey Ellis (USGS, USA)
Carbon and hydrogen compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) of organic molecules have been important
tools in petroleum geochemistry for decades. These data provide useful information for petroleum correlation,
thermal maturity assessment, and secondary alteration characterization, among other processes. CSIA of the 34S
composition of S-containing compounds has the potential to expand petroleum geochemical interpretations with an
independent isotopic tracer. However, traditional continuous flow methods involving gas chromatography isotope-ratio
mass-spectrometry have thus far proven to be analytically ineffective for 34S CSIA; consequently, labor intensive
offline compound isolation techniques have been required (e.g., Werne et al., 2008). By interfacing a
capillary-column gas chromatograph with a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, Amrani et al.
(2009) performed the first online CSIA of the 34S of organosulfur compounds (OSCs) in complex mixtures.
This development has led to the rapid expansion of compound-specific stable sulfur isotopic analysis of OSCs in
petroleum fluids in recent years.
This presentation will review the technical innovations that have enabled the efficient analysis of the 34S composition of individual OSCs in complex mixtures, and discuss the limitations, sample requirements, and some caveats of this analytical method. In the relatively short time that this approach has been in use, numerous applications of this powerful technique have been demonstrated in the field of petroleum geochemistry. Specific examples of applications of 34S CSIA of OSCs will be discussed, including: elucidating the extent (Amrani et al., 2012) , reaction mechanisms (Meshoulam et al., 2016) and source of sulfate related to thermochemical sulfate reduction (Ellis et al. 2017); identifying reaction pathways for incorporation of sulfur into OSCs in oil (Gvirtzman et al., 2015); determining end members in mixed oil accumulations (Li et al., 2015); constraining timing of petroleum secondary charge and migration pathways (Cai et al., 2016); assessing the thermal maturity of oil (Ellis et al. 2017); tracing molecular transformations of organic sulfur in kerogen in response to thermal stress (Rosenberg et al., 2017); quantifying the 34S composition of trace OSCs in sour gas (Said-Ahmad et al., 2017); recognizing the occurrence of external H2S charge (Ellis et al., 2017; Zhu et al., 2018); and oil-source correlation (Greenwood et al., 2018).
Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the significance and utility of the 34S composition of OSCs in petroleum, there is still much work to be done in this field. In particular, 34S CSIA has been underutilized in the study of OSCs in sedimentary depositional and diagenetic environments, yet these data could provide valuable information related to the formation and occurrence of OSCs in kerogen. These and other challenges and future research directions will also be discussed.
Bing Chen (Memorial University, Canada)
Preeminent effectiveness and feasibility of surfactants have made them widely used in oil spill cleanup. However, the public concerns on the chemically synthetic surfactants are growing due to their toxicity and persistency in the ecosystem. A growing environmental awareness as well as the unique properties of biosurfactants such as high surface activities, low critical micelle concentrations, stable performance, and low toxicity and persistency allow their promising use and possible replacement of chemical ones in environmental applications particularly for oil spill clean-up either inland or offshore. This talk will overview the current response practices and challenges and then introduce some recent research progress and achievements particularly in the novel biosurfactant enhanced oil spill cleanup technologies by the Northern Region Persistent Organic Pollution Control (NRPOP) Laboratory at the Memorial University. Particularly the development of biosurfactants from hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in cold environments and their economic production will be introduced. A series of bio-surfactants have been tested and applied to enhance the remediation of petroleum contaminated sites and the dispersion of oil in marine environments. Research findings and challenges will be discussed along with future opportunities.
William Orem (USGS, USA)
Medical Geology is an emerging field in the Earth Sciences that examines the
impacts of substances from geological sources on human and animal health. Studies
in Medical Geology are typically highly collaborative, requiring expertise from
earth scientists and the biomedical community (e.g. medical doctors, toxicologists,
epidemiologists, public health experts). The majority of studies in Medical Geology
have been focused on inorganic substances from the geologic environment, while studies
of the impact of geogenic organic substances on human health are far fewer. There are
many reasons for this, including the complexity of the many potentially toxic organic
substances from geologic sources.
In this presentation, we focus on human health impacts of organic substances of geogenic origin relevant to the field of Medical Geology. These substances arise from the geologic environment, with mobilization arising naturally or caused/exacerbated by anthropogenic activities. Organic compounds in the environment can originate from a number of different sources (e.g. soils, plants, microbes), but fossil carbon deposits (oil, coal, shale) are of particular interest because of the concentration and toxicity of organic substances present. Human exposures to toxic organic substances from geogenic sources may include inhalation of airborne particulates, drinking water contamination, and ingestion of contaminants taken up by crops. Toxicity can be acute or chronic. Acute toxicity from organic substances in geogenic fossil fuels would most likely impact energy industry workers while public health is more at risk to low level, chronic exposures in airborne particulates, drinking water supplies, or foodstuffs. Few studies of the human health implications of exposure to toxic organic compounds derived from fossil carbonaceous deposits have been conducted. Here, we highlight several case studies of the health effects of organic substances from the geogenic environment: (1) coal-derived organic substances in drinking water and the etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, (2) coal-derived organic substances in drinking water supplies and renal/pelvic cancer in the USA, and (3) organic substances in air particulates and lung/bronchus cancers in the Appalachian Basin of the USA near mountaintop removal mining of coal.
These case studies indicate the potential role of geogenic organic substances in human disease occurrence. Organic substances may originate from many sources, with fossil fuel deposits of particular interest. Exposure may occur from inhalation, drinking water, or other sources. However, the study of the role of natural organic substances from geogenic sources in human disease is an emerging science, and much remains unknown.
Paul Hackley (USGS, USA)
This keynote address will describe application of petrographic techniques (ion milling, SEM, CLEM, iCLEM, micro-FTIR,
micro-RAMAN, CLSM and AFM) in North American shale petroleum systems, describing examples from the literature and from
the author’s research. These techniques are increasingly applied to fine-grained sedimentary rocks due to the ‘shale
revolution’ – the rapid increase in oil production from unconventional reservoirs over the last decade in the United
Ion milling has provided a quantum leap forward in sample preparation, allowing observation of shale porosity at the nanoscale via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), helping to answer fundamental questions about hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and storage processes. Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) and integration of these imaging modalities in a single instrument (integrated CLEM or iCLEM) allows simultaneous identification of shale organic matter and high resolution observation of nanoscale properties.
Applications of micro-spectroscopy (infrared and Raman) have built a more complete picture of kerogen conversion processes through examination of in situ compositional and micro-structural changes occurring within individual organic matter types during thermal advance, whereas confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has allowed non-destructive, high resolution 3-D imaging of in situ sedimentary organic matter, and improved our understanding of compositional and microstructural controls on organic fluorescence. Last, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed geochemical and geomechanical characteristics at unprecedented resolutions of ~100 nm, enabling interrogation of these properties at the length scales relevant in shale. Collectively, these techniques have enabled fundamental advances in our understanding of shale petroleum system processes.
Kenneth Peters (Stanford University, USA)
The purpose of this presentation is to summarize recent developments in the application of
organic and inorganic geochemistry combined with petroleum system modeling to more reliably
identify sweet spots in unconventional mudrock resource plays. A sweet spot is a volume of rock
having enhanced porosity, permeability, fluid properties, water saturation, and/or rock stress
that is likely to yield more petroleum than adjacent rock upon stimulation. Sweet spots can be
identified both in map view and vertical profile. Current methods to identify sweet spots are
mostly empirical and compare independent organic and inorganic geochemical measurements in studied
rock with those of productive rock units. Most measurements are time-consuming, cannot be completed
while drilling, and are not at the proper sampling scale to reliably identify sweet spots. Improved
workflows are needed that include rapid, properly scaled geochemical and geomechanical measurements
that can be completed while drilling, coupled with 3D basin and petroleum system models that predict
unconventional targets through time.
Some significant recent advances include 3D poroelasticity, SARA, and adsorption modeling to predict rock stress, susceptibility to fracture, and the amount and composition of petroleum that remains in unconventional rock units. Organic and inorganic geochemical logs offer independent means to identify sweet spots. Most organic geochemical logs are based on direct measurements of carbonate content and organic pyrolysis response, but they require discrete samples at specified depth intervals, which are typically analyzed in a laboratory rather than at the drill site. Inorganic geochemical logs are based on indirect calculation of mineral content and TOC without the need to collect samples. Although inorganic geochemical logs do not determine the quality or thermal maturity of the kerogen, they provide continuous data with depth and can be quantified in real time during drilling. For example, DRIFTS has emerged as a robust method to determine TOC, maturity, and mineralogy from cuttings during drilling of horizontal wells.
The main factors controlling the amount of adsorbed hydrocarbon gas in unconventional gas shales are TOC and monolayer adsorption capacity. The amount of adsorbed hydrocarbon can be determined at any temperature and pressure using the Langmuir equation. During production, the amount of adsorbed gas is low compared to free gas until the reservoir pressure is strongly depleted. Calibrated kinetic parameters for light hydrocarbons suggest that petroleum generative potential of kerogen is depleted by 1.5–2.0% vitrinite reflectance equivalent (Ro) and that retained in source rock at Ro > 2.0% is mainly the product of early maturity or secondary oil cracking.
Geoffrey Ellis (USGS, USA)
Although sulfur typically is a very minor constituent in petroleum source rocks and fluids, it plays a very significant role in petroleum geochemistry. Sulfur has a substantial effect on hydrocarbon generation kinetics, the thermal stability of petroleum fluids, and secondary alteration processes such as thermochemical sulfate reduction, to cite just a few examples of the importance of sulfur in petroleum geochemistry. This course will provide of comprehensive overview of the role of sulfur in petroleum systems. Specific topics of discussion will include (but will not be limited to): the chemistry of sulfur, analytical methods applied to sulfur geochemistry, the global sulfur cycle, transformations of sedimentary sulfur, sulfur in kerogen and petroleum fluids, the role of sulfur in hydrocarbon generation and cracking kinetics, the molecular and isotopic composition of organosulfur compounds as proxies for geochemical processes, and sulfur-mediated secondary alteration of petroleum. Throughout the course, the presented material will be placed in the geologic context of the petroleum system. Additionally, several case studies will be presented that demonstrate the importance of integrating geologic and geochemical information in order to understand the processes that lead to the formation and alteration of petroleum accumulations and the role that sulfur plays in them.
Kenneth Peters (Stanford University, USA)
This one-day course shows how geochemistry and basin and petroleum system modeling (BPSM) can reduce
exploration risk for conventional and unconventional resources. It is designed for motivated students
and exploration, production, or development geologists who want a condensed overview of geochemistry and
BPSM. Lectures show how forward deterministic computer models use geohistory analysis, boundary conditions,
and chemical reaction kinetics to predict the timing of petroleum generation, molecular composition, and extent
of overpressure. Factors controlling shale “sweet spots” are discussed, including the influence of geomechanics
on rock fracturing and producibility, and the extent of primary or secondary cracking based on biomarkers, isotopes,
and diamondoids. Discussions provide guidelines for sample collection and project initiation, how to evaluate
prospective source rocks, and how to define petroleum systems through oil-source rock correlation. Participants
will learn how to calibrate petroleum system models using data from wells, such as pressure, corrected bottom-hole
temperature, and vitrinite reflectance. The lectures are designed to improve basic understanding of the processes
that control petroleum quantity/quality and the use of bulk, molecular, and isotopic tools. Special emphasis is
placed on identifying pitfalls to correct interpretations. Case studies and exercises show how geochemistry can
be used to solve exploration problems while minimizing costs.
Module 1. Introduction to 1D, 2D, and 3D BPSM
• Why do Basin and Petroleum System Modeling?
• Objectives and Nomenclature
• The Petroleum System
• Timing of Petroleum System Events and Processes
• Example from Alaska North Slope 3D Model
• Play Chance Maps and Risk
Module 2. Model Design and Construction
• Boundary Conditions Through Time
• Geohistory Analysis, Pressure and Geomechanics
• Chemical Reaction Kinetics
• Adsorption and Expulsion
• Migration and Seals
Module 3. Model Calibration and Validation
• Porosity and Pressure
• Temperature and Heat Flow
• Paleothermometry, Fluid Inclusions
• Vitrinite Reflectance, Easy%Ro
• Erosion and Missing Section
Module 4. Evaluating the Rocks
• TOC, Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, Kerogen Type
• Fractional Conversion, Original TOC, Expelled Petroleum, Expulsion Efficiency
• Organic and Inorganic Geochemical Logs
• Project Initiation and Sample Collection
Module 5. Geochemical Correlation and Chemometrics
• Biomarkers, Isotopes, Diamondoids
• Surface Geochemical Exploration
• Gas Geochemistry
• Chemometrics and Multivariate Data
Module 6. Special Considerations for Unconventionals
• Differences Between Conventionals and Unconventionals, Hybrid Systems
• Sweetspots, Langmuir Volume, Organoporosity
• Mineralogy, Brittleness, Geomechanics, Hydraulic Fracturing
• Targeting Areal and Vertical ‘Sweet Spots’
• Example from the Devonian Marcellus Shale
Module 7. Case Studies and Review
• Case Studies
San Joaquin Basin, California
Mahakam Delta, Kalimantan
Jianghan Basin, China
• Review and Conclusions
Mike Moldowan (Biomarker Technologies, USA)
Exploration is all about creating prospects that can yield new discoveries. While older geochemical
technologies such as isotopes of oils and oil fractions and classical biomarker analysis are extremely
useful, they have already been applied to most of the basins in the world, and therefore, are unlikely
to yield many new exploration ideas. In this course you will
1. study the fundamentals and theory behind biomarker analysis leading to better applications of classical biomarker methods in source, maturity and biodegradation determinations.
2. be given a review of age-related and taxon-specific biomarkers made available by GC-MS-MS analysis.
3. be shown advancements in compound specific isotope analysis of biomarkers and other hydrocarbons.
4. be introduced to new organic geochemical techniques based on diamondoids that provide crucial information in basin modeling that was previously unattainable.
These methods can be used to get a totally new picture of the petroleum systems in mature basins and will allow for the creation of more accurate basin models. They will in turn allow for the recognition of new plays and drilling targets.
Boniek Vaz, Ygor Rocha (UFG/Petrobras, Brazil)
Petroleomics is a comprehensive molecular-level characterization of crude oil samples in order to correlate or predict their behavior and properties. Such characterization is achieved using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS), which revolutionized crude analysis. Combining FTMS with a plenty of ionization methods, such as electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), a myriad of polar and non-polar compounds present in ultra-complex crude oil samples are routinely identified and assigned with unmatched mass resolution and accuracy. In addition to mass and formulae assignment, petroleomics analysis sorts the chemical compounds into heteroatom class (N, O, and S), the degree of unsaturation, and carbon number, using a diversity of specific plots and graphs. Such detailed information has already proved capable of distinguishing petroleum according to their geochemical origin, maturity and biodegradation level. In addition, the technique was successfully useful to assess reservoir connectivity. Therefore, in this course, we will discuss the fundamentals aspects of petroleomics, such the instrumental, softwares, graphics tools; as well as some applications in organic geochemistry.
Alexandre Evsukoff (COPPE-UFRJ, Brazil)
The reduction of the costs of storage processors and the spread of internet and portable devices have allowed the explosion of data generation. The 21st century marks the beginning of the predominance of digital data storage over analog technologies. The term "data science" has spread to designate the integration of several disciplines needed to deal with the deluge of data generated by technological processes. Several applications of data science have been developed in almost all areas of industry. Data science refers to methods and technologies for collecting, storing, processing, modeling, visualizing, analyzing and interpreting the results of models made from data of any format and size. Data science is boosted by the development of performant models by machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence. Recently, multi-layered neural networks have achieved excellent results in complex problems such as computer vision and speech recognition, among others. These models, called deep learning neural networks, can extract representations of input data at different levels of abstraction through sequential processing layers. The Petroleum industry and, more particularly, the field of Organic Geochemistry routinely deals with different datasets that can benefit from data science tools at various stages of analysis. This course presents the main statistical and computational intelligence techniques for machine learning, including the latest in deep learning algorithms. Some applications in organic geochemistry will be presented in addition to other more general applications in computational vision and natural language processing.
Eugenio dos Santos Neto (Independent Consultant, Brazil)
This course was designed for students of geology and engineering who intend to work in E&P activities including exploration and development of petroleum fields. No background of geochemistry is needed. Students will be introduced to the geochemical characterization of source rocks (kerogen type, thermal evolution and hydrocarbon source potential), and of petroleum and gas hydrocarbons (sources, thermal maturation levels, post-genetic alterations). Discussions will cover the use of the most common geochemical tools including total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, geochemical logs, gas chromatography, carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios and biological markers (biomarkers). The main objective in this training is to familiarize course participants with the best approach for using geochemical tools to improve discovery and development success in conventional and unconventional petroleum systems.
Alexandre Ferreira (Petrobras, Brazil)
This short course will cover the basic concepts of isotopes (definition, classification, notation), as well as the basic instrumentation used for the analyses of the stable isotope ratios of carbon, hydrogen and sulfur, the main elements of interest when it comes to Organic Geochemistry applied to Petroleum Exploration and Production. General sample preparation procedures and proper handling and storage of gas samples will also be discussed. Finally, the fundamentals of more recently developed tools for the analyses of isotopes will be shown and detailed, which includes laser spectroscopy and “clumped” isotopes of light hydrocarbons. This course is designed for those students who want to get in touch with the field of Isotope Geochemistry in an easy and practical way, and see, on the other hand, the strength of the obtained information to the petroleum industry.
Icaro Moreira, Karina Garcia (UFBA, Brazil)
This course was organized to discuss the main concepts of the geochemistry applied on environmental monitoring and remediation
using bioprocess as bioremediation with bacterias and fungy, phytoremediation with plants and phycoremediation with microalgae.
Professionals and students will be introduced to:
1) Sampling strategies and procedures in areas impacted by petroleum;
2) Methods of extraction and quantification of hydrocarbons in sediment and water samples and biological samples;
3) Interpretation of environmental data using hydrocarbon concentration and chromatogram data;
4) Decision making on the choice of remediation techniques;
5) Design and application of remediation techniques;
6) Interpretation of oil biodegradation data;
7) Multivariate analysis of geochemical data on petroleum biodegradation.
Medical geology considers the maximum and minimum concentrations of inorganic and organic compounds, found in geologic environments as a tool to evaluate the possible and probable ways living organisms are affected, especially humans. Depending on the chemical radical to which the element or substance is bound, its bioavailability and concentration, it can be inoffensive, but could also harm living beings. Generally organic compounds have greater chance of presenting bioavailability and, therefore, greater risk of absorption by living organisms than inorganic elements. In this short course, organics in geological environments pertaining to medical geology will be discussed such as sandstorms, asphalt lakes, mud volcanoes and seepages. Sandstorms can transport sediments in local or transcontinental scales. In the transcontinental case, the spreading usually follows customary routes and reaches regions far from their origin. Such is the situation of the Amazon rainforest. According to NASA, about 27 million tons of sand per year fall on this area coming from the Sahara desert, transporting inorganic compounds, organic products and microorganisms. In South Korea, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found from dust coming from the distant deserts of Taklamakan, Gobi and the Loess Plateau in China, located in the western part of Asia. The Sahel area, in Africa, that stretches from Senegal, in the west, to Ethiopia, in the east, is known as the “meningitis belt”. Hydrocarbons seepages can be found in onshore and offshore areas. The world´s largest and best-studied offshore example is the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep in California, USA. In this area, both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons seep from more than 250 seafloor vents that account for about half of the natural seepage along the northern margin of the Santa Barbara Channel. The seeped gas is composed mostly of methane, ethane, and propane along with traces of heavier hydrocarbons such as pentane and benzene. Asphalt lakes occur in several parts of world including Angola and the largest is located in southwest Trinidad in the village of La Brea. Mud volcanoes of variable shape and size (from a few m2 to more than 100-200 km2) are major sources of gas dispersion in subaerial and submarine environments. They constitute one of the largest surface expressions of hydrocarbon migration in petroleum-bearing sedimentary basins.
POS-CONGRESS FIELD TRIP
There will be a tour guided by the oil system of the Recôncavo Basin